Northern Gateway, Enbridge and Keystone Pipelines’ true purpose – grand theft fresh water.Corruption, World news Friday, November 16th, 2012
US oil companies like ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron and Anadarko cannot fabricate snake oil and toxic shale gas without a continuous supply of fresh fracking water. The Canadian fresh water supply is a vital US oil interest as astronomical amounts of fresh water is needed for fracking the snake oil (bitumen a.k.a. asphalt tar) and toxic shale gas (known toxic carcinogenic chemicals are mixed with our finite supply of fresh potable water) from the rock beds below ground. Because of this, fresh water is flowing through the Northern Gateway / Enbridge / Keystone Pipelines, not Alberta snake oil (bitumen tar sludge) or Bakken formation (Williston Basin) oil. The color coded pipes of the pipeline exposes the clandestine purpose of the pipeline. Color coding is used to identify what fluid is flowing inside buried pipelines. Olive green pipes are being laid (buried) for the Northern Gateway pipeline. Olive green color coded pipes can only be used for transporting raw water, not for transporting hazardous material like oil and gas.
Enormous amounts of fresh water are used every day by oil and gas companies in hydraulic fracturing of gas and oil. Just how much is revealed by the Canadian Tar Sands strip mining operation in Alberta. According to the Alberta government – It takes 3-5 barrels of fresh water to fabricate (Invent or concoct something, typically with deceitful intent.) a single barrel of synthetic oil from the tar sands. (source – http://www.energy.alberta.ca/oilsands/791.asp#Water%20Usage). Because the Alberta Tar Sands operation is a strip “mining operation” it consumes twice that amount of fresh water. Again, according to the Alberta government – “In mining operations, 7.5 to 10 barrels of water is used for every barrel of SCO (Synthetic Crude Oil aka imitation or fake oil) produced.”
Fresh water is in very short supply throughout the United States. Not because of a fabricated Global warming threat that is falsely being used as an excuse for droughts but because oil and gas companies have dried up thousands of lakes, rivers and stream in the hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas. Each oil well in the United States that uses the technique known as hydraulic fracturing, requires about six million gallons of water just to break open rocks far below the surface and release oil and natural gas.
Because so much fresh water is needed to extract oil and gas the US Obama government and the Canadian Conservative government of Stephen Harper have agreed to construct a 3,456 km (2,147 mi) Northern Gateway / Keystone Pipeline from Canada to the United States. The official stated purpose is to transport synthetic crude oil and diluted (mostly water) bitumen from the Athabasca Oil Sands. But the true purpose of the Northern Gateway / Keystone Pipeline is to transport Canada’s supply of fresh water and the remaining US fresh water reserves to multiple oil and gas fracking and refining destinations in the United States. Canadian water and bitumen contaminated water will be transported to refineries in Illinois, to the Cushing oil distribution hub in Oklahoma, and to refineries and export terminals along the Gulf Coast of Texas.
Why is Stephen Harper, the BC government, the Alberta government and the BC Superior Court involved in the grand theft of Canada’s finite and precious fresh water supply? Mr. Brownlow, who has a Ph.D. in geochemistry, says it takes 407 million gallons to irrigate 640 acres and grow about $200,000 worth of corn on arid land. The same amount of water, he says, could be used to frack enough wells to generate $2.5 billion worth of oil. “No water, no frack, no wealth,” says Mr. Brownlow, who has leased his cattle ranch for oil exploration. So accordingly, greed is the motive for corruption by Stephen Harper, the BC government, the Alberta government and their appointed superior court judges.
“Energy production requires large amounts of water, and transporting water requires large amounts of energy,” said Danny Reible, the faculty lead at Cockrell School of Engineering’s water-energy nexus research and a professor in the Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering Department. “Moreover, many of our most sustainable energy choices, such as biofuels, seemingly have unsustainable demands for water. By ensuring our water future, we will reduce the number of limitations on our energy choices.“ The first quoted statement is true as even the Alberta government admits to this fact. The second quoted statement is false. Biofuel is made naturally without using any water. Biofuel is made from a decaying biological material such as wood, grass, leaves and other dead plant material, animal feces, and kitchen waste, in the absence of oxygen.
Biogas is produced by the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material, and crops.Biogas comprises primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. Anaerobic digestion uses no added water. Adding fresh water to the anaerobic process would impede and prevent the decomposition of the biodegradable material.
The Northern Gateway / Keystone Pipelines were intentionally designed to connect it with more than 1,000 streams and rivers. In Montana, the Keystone pipeline would cross the Yellowstone River, a major tributary into the Missouri River and the longest undammed river in the lower 48 states. The river is of vital use for fishermen and recreationalists, and is a major irrigation source for farmers and ranchers.
The St. Clair River provides drinking water for millions in Southeast Michigan and the Enbridge pipeline runs under the river and is due to be replaced by the Keystone Pipeline. The St. Clair River drains into Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, and Lake Erie.
The Keystone pipeline was intentionally designed to connect with the Ogallala Aquifer, one of the world’s largest freshwater aquifers that provides 30 percent of the ground water used for irrigation in the United States, and drinking water for millions of Americans. The aquifer covers areas in South Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas.
The Keystone pipeline will cross the Mississippi River in Missouri, near the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, and terminates just across the river in Illinois. The Enbridge pipelines already crosses the northern part of the Mississippi River in Minnesota.
The longest river on the continent and the route of the Lewis and Clark expedition, the Missouri is crossed by pipelines in numerous places, including by Keystone pipeline on the South Dakota-Nebraska border and the Kansas-Missouri border, by Enbridge pipelines in Missouri, and by the proposed Keystone pipeline in Montana, near the relatively isolated Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument.
The Keystone pipeline would cross the Red River on the Oklahoma Texas border. The Neches River is the last river in East Texas with abundant wildlife, clean water, scenic river vistas, and forests. The Keystone
pipeline would cross the Neches River in Texas.
Do you see why the Keystone Pipeline was intentionally designed to connect with all of the major fresh water reservoirs in the United States? If you want to physically see the connection between the Keystone pipeline and the stealing and transportation of fresh water look for new construction of pumping stations along the proposed pipeline’s route. Pumping stations will be built at these streams, rivers, lakes and aquifers and water from them will be taken and pumped into the pipeline and transported, illegally, to and throughout the United States where it will be used, not for drinking, cooking, cleaning or for life sustaining crop irrigation, but for hydraulic fracturing of gas and oil.
Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, has revived dead or dying oil and gas companies in the U.S.. At the expense of wasting billions of barrels of life essential fresh drinking water. Fracking uses very toxic chemicals mixed with fresh drinking water to extract oil and gas. As soon as the chemicals are mixed with the water the water is forever contaminated and the tailings eventually contaminates all underground aquifers. Towns, cities, urban dwellings and farms get their fresh water from those underground aquifers. Where will the cities and town and urban dwelling people get their drinking water if the oil and gas companies consume all the water that is available in the streams, rivers, lakes and underground aquifers? Nowhere. It is just financially impossible to truck in water.
The biggest challenge to future oil and gas extraction is simply getting access to sufficient water. North Dakota, another heavy user of fresh water for hydraulic fracturing is quickly depleting aquifers and has actually threatened to sue the federal government to free up water held by an Army Corps of Engineers dam. Oil and gas companies are threatening to sue the US government for not providing them with the water that everyone in the state of North Dakota needs to survive. That is the true purpose of the Keystone Pipeline. Oil and gas companies threatening to sue “the people” of the United States so that they can continue to steal water from the United States people.