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The main components of automobile exhaust are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O). Because of the rising concern over global warming due to greenhouse gases many countries are now adopting emission standards as a means to reduce CO2 emissions. Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. Many emissions standards focus on regulating pollutants released by automobiles (motor cars) and other powered vehicles but they can also regulate emissions from industry, power plants, small equipment such as lawn mowers and diesel generators.

In the United States, emissions standards are managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The state of California has special dispensation to promulgate more stringent vehicle emissions standards, and other states may choose to follow either the national or California standards.

California’s emissions standards are set by the California Air Resources Board, known locally by its acronym “CARB”. Given that California’s automotive market is one of the largest in the world, CARB wields enormous influence over the emissions requirements that major automakers must meet if they wish to sell into that market. In addition, several other U.S. states also choose to follow the CARB standards, so their rulemaking has broader implications within the U.S.

The European Union has its own set of emissions standards that all new vehicles must meet.

Canada also has its own set of emission standards. Ontario’s Drive Clean is an automobile emissions control program in Ontario, Canada. Originally, vehicles under 4,500 kg (cars, SUV, light trucks) and over three years old (and up to the 19th year) required an emission test every two years before the vehicle’s owner or lessor can renew its license plate. Starting with 2006, the test exemption was increased to five years, while the rolling exemption at 20 years ended, and all 1987 and older vehicles became exempt.

Are only older cars the worse polluters? Not so. Some of the worse polluting vehicles on the road today are: the DODGE SRT-10 (Churning out 488 grams of carbon dioxide every kilometre - 488g/km), BMW M3 (309g/km), RENAULT Clio Renault Sport 200 (195g/km), VOLKSWAGEN Golf R32 4MOTION (255g/km) , FORD Ka, Post 2006 1.6 Duratec Sportka (182g/km), MERCEDES R-Class R63 AMG (387g/km), MERCEDES Viano 3.5 (284g/km), CADILLAC CTS-V (350g/km), CADILLAC Escalade 6.2 V8 (383g/km), and the BENTLEY Brooklands Coup (465g/km) ~ according to the Environmental Transport Association following a study of more than 1,300 models of cars currently on sale in Britain.

Canadian clean energy technology and solutions company, KINCAIDs, is working on ways to help reduce CO2 emissions. Their latest clean energy device, the FuelReducer Xe was developed to help reduce CO2 emissions. A number of emission tests have recently been carried out at various emission testing sites throughout the GTA (Greater Toronto Area). A number of different vehicles were tested twice, once without a FuelReducer Xe and then again after a FuelReducer Xe was installed. The Ontario Drive Clean emission testing equipment showed a decrease in CO2 emissions.

The US federal government aims to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 28 percent by 2020, the White House announced in January 2010. The FuelReducer Xe can help reach that goal this year, 10 years ahead of schedule.